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Human Health




With increasing global population, and with urban environment in the process of becoming the most dominant human habitat for the first time in history, current human health challenges may be further exacerbated. Toxic trace metal contamination in urban soils exceeding regulatory levels is endemic owing to anthropogenic sources such as input from fertilizers, pesticides, waste incinerators, municipal waste, and emissions from industrial plants and automobiles among other sources. The bioaccumulation of trace metals in humans can lead to a variety of metabolic and systemic dysfunctions affecting their immune, neurological, and endocrine systems.

Not only is the global population increasing, the human life span has also increased. With increasing life span, and prosperity in developed and fast developing nations smart biomaterials are needed for human tissue augmentation to maintain and enhance the quality of life.